# ANNUITY DUE: Definition, Formula and Calculations

A contract between a policyholder and an insurance provider is referred to as an annuity. With this arrangement, policyholders send the insurance firm a lump sum payment in exchange for a series of payments made instantaneously or at a defined time in the future. There are various sorts of annuities that consumers should be aware of and understand. An ordinary annuity pays you at the conclusion of your covered term, whereas an annuity due pays you at the start of your covered term. If you have an annuity or are thinking about getting one, here’s a comparison of an ordinary annuity vs an annuity due and the formula for calculating its present value and future value.

## What is the Annuity Due?

Annuity due refers to a succession of equal payments made at the beginning of each period at the same interval. Periods can be specified as monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, yearly, or any other time frame. Rentals, leases, and insurance payments are examples of annuity due payments, which are made to cover services performed in the period following the payment.

## What is the Process of Annuity Due?

An annuity due is distinguished by its initial payments. When individuals receive annuity due payments in a legal manner, they are equivalent to assets. At the same time, an annuity due paid to an individual has been deemed a legal debt liability that demands monthly interval payments.

Both the sender and the receiver of annuity due payments must determine the total value (present and future) because they reflect cash inflows and outflows. The use of present value calculations is one approach for accomplishing this.

## Annuity Due Examples

As an example of an annuity due, a corporation obtains a copier through a lease that requires a \$250 payment at the beginning of each month for three years. Because all payments are the same amount (\$250), made at regular intervals (monthly), and made at the start of each period, the payments represent an annuity due.

Another example of an annuity due is when a corporation signs into an office lease that requires the lessor to make monthly payments of \$12,000 for the next 24 months, no later than the beginning of the month to which each payment applies. Because all payments are the same amount (\$12,000), made at regular intervals (monthly), and made at the start of each period, the payments represent an annuity due.

### What Is a Whole Annuity Due?

This is a type of product promoted by insurance companies that requires annuity payments to be made at the beginning of each month, quarter, or year. This type of annuity provides the member with a constant distribution schedule for payments throughout the rest of their natural lives. When the annuitant dies, the insurance company has the option to keep the leftover cash. In this context, it is critical to understand that all annuity income payments are treated as ordinary income for tax reasons.

#### Examples:

Annuity payments are similar to recurring financial responsibilities. Mortgages, house leases, auto EMI payments, and even mobile network charges fall within the category of the annuity due. The beneficiary is required by law to pay for the items or services at the start of the billing period. Another example would be insurance expenses, as the policy requires payment of the insurance premium at the start of each coverage period. Annuity due payments include retirement savings and the assignment of a fixed amount of money for a certain purpose.

## Annuity Due Present Value

The present value of a sequence of cash flows is equivalent to the present value of an annuity due. The payments derived from the annuity due are made at the beginning of each time period. Individuals need to have a solid comprehension of the two annuity types in order to comprehend the present value of an annuity due.

### The Formula for Calculating the Present Value of an Annuity Due

Calculating present value is a step toward evaluating how much your annuity is worth — and if you’re receiving a fair bargain when you sell your payments.

To understand and apply this present value of an annuity due formula, you’ll need specific information, such as the discount rate granted by a purchasing corporation.

When utilizing the present value of the annuity due formula, you will need the following information:

• Each fixed payment’s monetary value
• Count the number of payments you want to sell.
• Rate of discount

The formula for calculating the Present Value of an Annuity Due is as follows:

where

• C = cash flow per time period.
• r = the interest rate.
• n = the number of periods.

The immediacy of the payments is the essential element in determining the present value of an annuity due. The word discount rate is used in place of interest rate terminology when computing the present value. Due to the aforementioned formula, the interest rate can sometimes be a fluctuating variable when computing the present value of an annuity.

Annuity payments can be made at various intervals, such as monthly, yearly, or semi-annually. The interest rate variant used in the computation should be identical to the number of payments substituted in the equation. If individuals receive payments on a semi-annual basis, it stands to reason that the calculation equation for the present value of annuity due should similarly use a semi-annual interest rate.

### The Effect of Discount Rates on Present Value

Discount rates are used by factoring businesses, or companies that will buy your annuity or structured settlement, to account for market risks such as inflation and to make a modest profit by providing you early access to your payments. The value of an annuity and the amount of money you receive from a purchasing firm are both affected by the discount rate.

The standard discount rate ranges between 9% and 18%. They can be higher, but they are frequently in the middle. The larger the present value, the lower the discount rate. Low-interest rates enable you to keep more of your money.

Most states require factoring providers to disclose discount rates and present value during the transaction process, according to the Internal Revenue Service. Always request these figures before agreeing to sell payments.

It’s also worth noting that, due to economic circumstances, the value of remote payments is lower for purchasing companies. The sooner you receive a payment owing to you, the more money you will receive for that payment. Those due in the next five years, for example, are worth more than payments due in the next 25 years. Keep this in mind during the selling process.

## The Future Value of an Annuity Due

This is the total value of a continuous series of likely payments for the entered value at a future date. The future value of an annuity due is used to analyze and compute the future value of payments that must be made immediately at the commencement of the payment period.

The following formula for the future value of an annuity due can be used to predict the final result of a continuous series of payments over a specific period of time.

• C = the monetary value that must be paid at the start of the payment period
• r = the interest rate.
• n = the total number of payments

The term ‘value’ in this context refers to the likely cash flows that a series of future payments can achieve. The future value of the annuity due can be used to calculate the possible returns on investment at a future date in time.

### Difference between Annuity Due’s Present Value and Future Value

The present value of an annuity due estimates the current value of an investment amount that is due to begin immediately and is contingent on future payments. All payments would be made out during the beginning period of each cycle in the present value of the annuity due. For an accurate assessment of the present value of an annuity due, the payment frequency and the applied interest rate must match.

Individuals can use the future value of an annuity due as a powerful investigative tool to examine the cash flow possibilities of a given financial investment. This is generally used to calculate the future value of a series of payment payments at a given date, assuming that the interest rate remains constant.

## Ordinary Annuity vs Annuity Due

### #1. Payments

The primary distinction between an annuity due and the more common ordinary annuity is that payments for an ordinary annuity are made at the end of the period, but payments for an annuity due are made at the beginning of each period/interval. Loan repayments, mortgage payments, bond interest payments, and dividend payments are all examples of ordinary annuity payments.

### #2. Present value

Another distinction is that the present value of an annuity due is greater than that of an ordinary annuity. It is due to the time value of money, as annuity payments are received earlier.

As a result, if you are planning to make ordinary annuity payments, acquiring an ordinary annuity will benefit you by allowing you to keep your money for a longer period of time (for the interval). If, on the other hand, you are set to receive annuity due payments, you will gain since you will receive your money (value) sooner. In every annuity due, each payment is discounted for one less time than in a comparable ordinary annuity.

In equation terms, the relationship looks like this:

PV of a Due Annuity = PV of an ordinary Annuity * (1+i)

When the PV of an ordinary annuity is multiplied by (1+i), the cash flows are shifted one period back towards time zero.

The final distinction is in terms of future value. The future value of an annuity due is also greater than that of an ordinary annuity by a factor of one plus the periodic interest rate. When compared to an ordinary annuity, each cash flow is compounded for one more term.

The formula is written as follows:

FV of an Annuity Due = FV of an Ordinary Annuity * (1+i).

### What it Modifies

Annuities will be calculated by lenders and investing firms. You have access to annuity calculations as a consumer because they are used to calculate how much you are charged. Due to interest accrual, if you make your payment at the end of a billing cycle, your payment will most likely be larger than if you make your payment immediately.

### What Is the Best Annuity?

In general, an ordinary annuity is most profitable to a consumer when payments are made. An annuity due, on the other hand, is most profitable for a consumer while they are receiving payments. Due to inflation and the time value of money, payments on an annuity due have a higher present value than payments on an ordinary annuity.

## The Bottom Line

The payment that should be made at the start of the specified payment interval is referred to as the annuity due. This is in contrast to an ordinary annuity, which generates payments at the end of the time period. Using this example, there are various mathematical ways for calculating the annuity due’s future and present values. A basic example of an annuity due would be a succession of house rent payments owed to the property owner. Mortgage payments paid to banks are classified as ordinary annuity payments. The financial prudence of choosing a form of an annuity due is determined by whether you are paying or receiving payments.

## Which is better ordinary annuity or annuity due?

Because payments are made sooner with an annuity due than with an ordinary annuity, an annuity due has a larger present value than an ordinary annuity. When interest rates rise, the value of an ordinary annuity falls. When interest rates fall, however, the value of an ordinary annuity rises.

## What is the difference between annuity due and deferred annuity?

Immediate annuity programs, as the name implies, provide you with a monthly or annual annuity as soon as you invest. Annuity payments can be made for a set period of time or for the rest of one’s life. In a deferred annuity, you invest a lump sum or annual/monthly premiums for a set period of time.

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