Net Fixed Assets: Definition, Formula, & Calculation

Net Fixed Assets

Knowing the value of assets is crucial for investors. And calculating an entity’s net fixed assets is one way to determine its value, which can give investors the assurance they need to proceed with business transactions.

Also, investors can use net fixed assets to find out the actual value of a company’s fixed assets, providing them with the most accurate estimate of the assets’ value. That’s how vital net fixed assets are.

Thus, a company should know the actual value of its assets to help them make better decisions financially.

In this article, you’ll discover what net fixed assets are, their formula, and how to calculate them.

What Are Net Fixed Assets?

Net fixed assets are a metric used to calculate the actual value of an asset after subtracting its depreciation and liabilities. Depreciation comprises anything that lowers the asset’s worth, such as accumulating expenses over time and costs required to maintain the asset incurred by the company. Any debts incurred by the company to purchase the assets, such as a bank loan, are also included.

Companies report their assets and liabilities monthly, quarterly, or annually using a balance sheet. Total fixed assets are assets reported before deductions are reported as property, plant, and equipment on balance sheets.

For instance, a company’s fixed assets may include supplies, machinery, vehicles, and buildings. Its liability could be a due credit to a manufacturer or vendor. Or the cost of necessary repairs to the company’s assets.

The net fixed assets, or the actual value of the company’s assets, remain after adding up the fixed assets and taking off depreciation and liabilities.

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Net Fixed Assets Formula

Below is the formula for net fixed assets:

  • Net fixed assets = total fixed assets (accumulated depreciation + liability): A company’s net fixed assets are equivalent to its gross or total fixed assets minus the accumulated depreciation on the assets. And a little more thorough version of the formula can provide an extra comprehensive assessment of an entity’s assets.
  • Net fixed assets = (total fixed asset purchase price + improvements) – (accumulated depreciation + fixed asset liabilities): The above formula is helpful because it contains fixed asset liabilities, which can tell the investor the precise amount of assets they will own.

Components

The following are the factors that make up net fixed assets:

1. Fixed Assets

Contrary to stock, fixed assets are assets that the company purchases for long-term use. They are not sold and are not readily convertible into cash; instead, they are used to generating revenue. There are two types of fixed assets:

  • Tangible assets: They can be touched. Examples include equipment, land or buildings, furniture, plant & machinery, real estate assets, etc.
  • Intangible assets: They cannot be touched but exist through stipulation. Examples are patent, trademark, goodwill, copyright, etc.

2. Accumulated Depreciation

The accumulated depreciation is the value charged on an asset from its starting use till its present use. Every year, the depreciation is charged to the asset, which is subsequently added to the accumulated depreciation account.

For example, a company bought furniture worth $100,000 on April 1, 2016. Plants and machinery have a 15-year useful life and a residual value of 10% of the asset’s cost. Depreciation equals ($100,000 – 10% of $100,000)/15 = $6000 for 2016–17.

Likewise, for 2017–18 and 2018–19, the depreciation expenses are $6,000 yearly. Thus, the accumulated depreciation as of March 31 is:

$6,000 + $6,000+ $6,000 = $18,000, which is the cumulative depreciation from the date it was first used till the current date.

3. Capital Improvements

Enterprises explore ways to boost production efficiency, improve space facilities, etc., to enable the existing machinery or equipment to function more effectively and efficiently.

Such capital improvement calculation will be the capital improvement cost over its useful life.

4. Fixed Asset Liabilities

Fixed assets liabilities are liabilities related to fixed assets that comprise every debt stemming from the purchase or improvements of fixed assets. The enterprise is expected to pay lenders the same thing.

See this: Inventory Investment: Definition, Calculations And All You Need To Know

Example of How to Calculate Net Fixed Assets

Find the steps to calculate below.

1. Find the gross assets

Sum up the total number of assets the enterprise owns.

Example: A company owner wants to boost their assets by investing in another company, XYZ. Before they proceed with negotiations, the investor would like to understand their potential investment fully. So, he calculates the net fixed assets.

He then looks at XYZ’s balance sheet, which details all its assets. XYZ’s gross assets, which include its machinery, buildings, vehicles, and so on, sum up to $3,000,000.

2. Determine the liabilities

Point out the liabilities and accumulated depreciation.

Example: The investor will see that XYZ has accumulated depreciation of $300,000. In addition, XYZ has liabilities summing up to $200,000.

3. Calculate the total liabilities

To get the total liabilities, sum up the liabilities and accumulated depreciation.

Example: The investor will use the information below to calculate XYZ’s net fixed assets.

  • Gross fixed assets: $3,000,000
  • Accumulated depreciation: $300,000

Liabilities: $200,000

Since the formula requires joining the asset liabilities with the accumulated depreciation, the investor can sum up those figures:

$300,000 + $200,000 = $500,000

4. Calculate the net fixed assets

Use the information you gathered and the formula to calculate the net fixed assets.

Example: Having calculated the liabilities and total accumulated depreciation, the investor can now calculate XYZ’s net fixed assets:

Net fixed assets = $3,000,000 – $500,000 = $2,500,000

5.  Analyze the results

After calculating the net fixed assets, you can tell if it would be an excellent choice to proceed with the investment.

Example: After completing the calculations, the investor should determine that the net fixed assets of XYZ are $2,500,000. When the investor divides the net fixed assets by the total fixed assets, he can get the percentage of total he might own:

$2,500,000 + $3,000,000 = 0.83 = 83%

Now, the investor understands that the net fixed assets of XYZ are 83% of its total fixed assets. It’s a favorable thing for the investor, as it shows that XYZ has invested in their business and has lost only 17% of its starting fixed value. So, the investor can choose to proceed with their investment, understanding that XYZ’s assets are in good condition and wouldn’t need extra investment to keep the asset value high.

Advantages & Disadvantages of Net Fixed Assets

Net fixed assets help investors to decide whether they should invest in a company. Below, we highlight some merits and demerits of net fixed assets.

Advantages

Here are the benefits of net fixed assets:

  • It gives stakeholders valuable information about the company’s general financial health.
  • Net fixed assets are helpful for analysts to understand the method of computation. The reason is that there are many methods for recording assets, depreciation, and asset disposals.
  • It determines the maintenance the firm puts into its assets. They help to determine the amount of capital an enterprise has invested in its assets. This determines whether an investor will invest in the entity.
  • Net fixed assets are crucial in capital-intensive industries because they need massive investments in Property, Plant, and equipment. These industries invest more in fixed assets and expect future benefits, meaning that when the company is expanding, it’s acceptable if it will face negative cash flows from fixed asset purchases.

Disadvantages

  • The value of the asset per book differs from its value per tax consideration. And the entity may profit if the accelerated depreciation method is used. However, this method is not acceptable by GAAP.
  • If the asset is fully depreciated, it doesn’t mean it has no worth. Sometimes after the life expectancy of the assets, they still are helpful for many years.
  • Net fixed assets will be irrelevant if there’s accelerated depreciation. This method is used to recognize the total depreciation of an asset in the same year of purchase. With this method, the net book value will be zero, resulting in a wrong interpretation of the asset’s net value.

Conclusion

An enterprise needs to know the actual value of its assets, especially concerning its valuation. The reason is that it enables the company to make better financial decisions. Not knowing will prove costly(in the future) to investors. Thus, are essential.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are net fixed assets on the balance sheet?

On the balance sheet, net fixed assets are equivalent to the book value of an entity’s fixed assets less its accumulated depreciation. You ought to use this figure when calculating net fixed assets.

Do net fixed assets comprise current assets?

No, net fixed assets do not comprise current assets. Net fixed assets are the net value of a firm’s fixed assets only. They do not contain any of its current or non-current assets.

Is net fixed assets a current asset?

Fixed assets are a type of non-current asset. They are known as Property, Plant, and Equipment (PP&E). Fixed assets are tangible non-current assets like buildings, furniture, machinery, vehicles, land, and buildings. It’s difficult for a company to liquidate them.

Can net fixed assets be negative?

If the gross assets are less than the total liabilities, the company has negative net assets. For instance, a company with $700 in assets and $1,000 in liabilities has net assets of $300. In that case, they will report net assets as a negative number on the balance sheet.

How do I calculate average net fixed assets?

Here’s the formula to calculate average fixed assets:
Average fixed assets = net fixed asset’s beginning balance (NABB) + Ending Balance / 2.

References

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